Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Sekilas Sejarah Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Indonesia, sebagaimana negara lain, akan sangat berkepentingan dengan pencapaian beberapa tujuan dengan indikator global yang telah disepakati dalam bentuk komitment Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). Sebagaimana kita ketahui, terdapat 8 tujuan dan sasaran pokok MDGs. Namun sebelum dicapai kesepakatan tersebut proses lahirnya MDGs mengalami pasang surut proses lama dan perundingan alot. Perjalanan MDGs dimulai dengan berbagai konferensi, antara lain :

  •     The Specialist Conferences (1990-1995)
  •     Children’s SummitNew York, 1990
  •     UN Summit onEnvironment &Development;Rio de Ja iero,1992
  •      Human RightsConferenceVienna, 1993
  •     InternationalConference onPopulation andDevelopmentCairo, 1994
  •     World Summit forSocialDevelopmentCopenhagen, 1995
  •     World Conferenceon WomenBeijing, 1995
  •     Shaping the 21stCentury (IDG)
  •      OECD DAC 1996
  •      We the PeoplesKoffi Annan 2000
  •     A Better World forAllUN, OECD, IBRD,IMF, 2000
  •     MillenniumDeclarationUN, 2000
  •     Road Map (MDG)UN, 2001
  •     The Inter Agencyand Expert Group2002

Beberapa tahapan dan konferensi datas kemudian melahirkan International Development Goals, khususnya dalam bidang ekonomi dan sosial. Dalam bidang “a reduction by one-half in the proportion of people living inextreme poverty  by 2015. Sedangkan dalam bidang pembangunan social :

    • Universal primary education  in all countries by 2015;
    • Demonstrated progress toward gender equality  and theempowerment of women  by eliminating gender disparity inprimary and secondary education by 2005;
    •  A reduction by two-thirds in the mortality rates for infants and  children under age 5 and a reduction by three-fourths in maternal  mortality, all by 2015;
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
  • Access through the primary health-care system to reproductive  health services for all individuals of appropriate ages as soon aspossible and no later than the year 2015.
Dalam bidang pembangunan lingkungan yang berkelanjutan (environmental sustainability and regeneration), “The current implementation of national strategies for sustainable development in all countries by 2005, so as to ensure that current trends in the loss of environmental resources  are effectively reversed at both global and national levels by 2015”.
Sampai pada tahap diatas, jika kita perharikan terdapat beberapa isu yng dihilangkan (hasil kompromi ?), seperti kesetaraan gender dan pemberdayaan perempuan (Gender equality andwomen’s empowerment), kesehatan reproduksi (reproductive health), yang dirasa sensitif pada aspek agama dan kepercayaan (menyangkut kontrsepsi, etc),. Sementara beberapa topik muncul dan mengalami penguatan, seperti pertumbuhan ekonomi, pembangunan berkelanjutan (sustainable developmentand environment), HIV/AIDS, serta technologi.
Kemudian lahir Millennium Declaration, yang berisi antara lain : Peace, security and disarmament; Development and poverty eradication; Protecting the environment; Human rights, democracy and good governance; Protecting the vulnerable; Meeting the special needs of Africa;
Strengthening the United Nations.
Secara khusus deklarasi millenium tersebut menyorot sektor pembangunan dan penghapusan angka kemiskinan (end poverty?). Beberapa kesepakatan terkait development and poverty eradication, antra lain
  • To halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world’speople whose income is less than one dollar a day  and theproportion of people who suffer from hunger and, by thesame date, to halve the proportion of people who areunable to reach or to afford safe drinking water
  •  To ensure that, by the same date, children everywhere,boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course ofprimary schooling  and that girls and boys will have equal  access to all levels of education
  •  By the same date, to have reduced maternal mortality  bythree quarters, and under-five child mortality  by two thirds,of their current rates
  •  To have, by then, halted, and begun to reverse,the spread of HIV/AIDS, the scourge of malaria and other major diseases  that afflict humanity
  •  To provide special assistance to childrenorphaned by HIV/AIDS
  •  By 2020, to have achieved a significantimprovement in the lives of at least 100 millionslum dwellers  as proposed in the ‘Cities withoutSlums’ initiative.
  •  To have, by then, halted, and begun to reverse, the spread of HIV/AIDS, the scourge of malaria and other major diseases  that afflict humanity
  •  To provide special assistance to children orphaned by HIV/AIDS  By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers  as proposed in the ‘Cities without Slums’ initiative.’

Berdasarkan deklarasi millennium diatas, kemudian lahir Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), yang berisi 8 tujuan pokok :

  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Achieve universal primary education
  • Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Reduce child mortality
  • Improve maternal health
  •  Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
  •  Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Develop a global partnership for development
Base line yang digunakan untuk mengukur pencapaian MDGs adalah base line tahun 1990. Pertanyaan besaar saat ini adalah, seberapa optimis Indonesia mampu mencapai tujuan MDGs diatas? Kemudian bagaimana nasib MDGs setelah tahun 2015 ?
TOBE CONTINUED ….

One Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Weight Loss Diet

New Mobile Info

info-ponselhp photo InfoHOFlash_zpsc6939bc5.gif

Update Kesmas Lainclose